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August 18

Saints Days : Elena, Clara Montefalso, Lauro, León and Juliana

1217 - First historical record of Scottish scholar Michael Scot, signs and dates his translation of al-Bitruji's 'On The Sphere' in Toledo
1480 - on the island of Gran Canaria landed the expedition organized by the Catholic Monarchs for the conquest of the archipelago.
1487 – The Siege of Málaga ends with the taking of the city by Castilian and Aragonese forces.

1492 - Publication of first Edition of ‘Gramática sobre la Lengua Castellana’ by Antonio de Nebrija.
1572 - Marriage in Paris, France, of the Huguenot King Henry III of Navarre to Margaret of Valois, in a supposed attempt to reconcile Protestants and Catholics.
1796 - the governments of Spain and France established an alliance against England in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, the work of Manuel de Godoy.
1850 - A royal order gives rise to the National Historical Archive.
1947 - Explosive deposit goes off in Cádiz killing more than 150 and injuring more than 5,000. A large number of buildings also damaged.
1995 - The Supreme Court of Spain assumes the GAL case and reclaims the judge Baltasar Garzon to attend to the summary.

1606 - Maria Anna of Spain Holy Roman Empire Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, born in El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial She acted as regent on several occasions during the absences of her spouse, notably during his absence in Bohemia in 1645
Daughter of King Felipe III of Spain and Margaret of Austria, prior to her imperial marriage she was considered a possible wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the event, later known in history as the 'Spanish match', provoked a domestic and political crisis in the Kingdoms of England and Scotland. In the imperial court in Vienna she continued to be strongly influenced by her native Spanish culture (from clothes to music) and also to promote the strengthening off relations between the Imperial and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg (d. 1646)
1776 - Agustín Argüelles, lawyer, politician and diplomat.
1879 - Manuel Arce y Ochotorena, cardinal (d. 1948)
1906 - Ladislao Vajda, Hungarian filmmaker nationalized Spanish.
1930 - Agustín Ibarrola, sculptor and painter.
1945 - Pedro de Silva, writer and politician.
1948 - Santiago de la Parte, athlete and athletic trainer.
1958 - Olga Viza, journalist.
1976 - Amaya Valdemoro, basketball player.
1985 - Julen Goikoetxea, cyclist (d. 2006)

1500 - Alfonso of Aragon, priest (b. 1481)
1861 - Graciliano Afonso, poet (b. 1775)
1936 - Juan Rodríguez Lozano, soldier (b. 1893)
1970 - Soledad Miranda, actress (b. 1943)
1986 - Juan José Rosón, politician and former minister.
1995 - Julio Caro Baroja, anthropologist, historian, linguist and essay writer.
1996 - Francisco de Paula Solano, historian.
2010 - Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma, noble and politician (b. 1930).

The Siege of Málaga (1487) was an action during the Reconquest of Spain in which the Catholic Monarchs conquered the city of Málaga from the Muslims. The siege lasted about four months. It was the first conflict in which ambulances, or dedicated vehicles for the purpose of carrying injured persons, were used.

Málaga was the main objective of the 1487 campaign by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada, which had been steadily losing territory to the Christian forces. King Ferdinand II of Aragon left Córdoba with an army of 20,000 horsemen, 50,000 laborers and 8,000 support troops. This contingent joined the artillery commanded by Francisco Ramírez de Madrid that left Écija. The army decided to first attack Vélez-Málaga, and then continue west to Malaga. Nasrid spies gave word of the movements of the Christians, and the inhabitants of Vélez fled to the mountains and the Bentomiz castle.

The Spanish reached Vélez-Málaga on 17 April 1487 after a slow advance through difficult country. A few days later the lighter siege engines arrived. It had proved impossible to move the heavier ones along the poor roads. Muhammed XIII, Sultan of Granada (El Zagal) made an attempt to relieve Vélez, but was forced to retreat to Granada by the superior forces of the marquis of Cadiz. On his arrival there he found that he had been overthrown in favor of his nephew Abdallah Muhammad XII. Seeing no hope of relief, Vélez capitulated on 27 April 1487 on condition that the lives of the people would be spared, and they would keep their property and religion. Smaller places also surrendered along the road to Málaga, the next objective.

City of Malaga
The Moorish city of Mālaqa was the second city in the emirate after Granada itself, a major trading port on the Mediterranean. The city was prosperous, with elegant architecture, gardens and fountains. The city was surrounded by fortifications, which were in good condition. Above it was the citadel, the Alcazaba of Málaga, connected via a covered way with the impregnable fortress of Gibralfaro. A land-side suburb was also ringed by a strong wall. Towards the sea were orchards of olives, oranges and pomegranates, and vineyards from whose grapes the sweet fortified Malaga wine, an important export, was made.

The city was well-supplied with artillery and ammunition. In addition to the normal garrison it contained volunteers from other towns in the regions and a corps of Gomeres, experienced and disciplined African mercenaries. Hamet el Zegrí, the former defender of Ronda, was in command of the defense.

While still at Vélez, Ferdinand attempted to negotiate a surrender on good terms, but his offers were refused by Hamet el Zegrí. Ferdinand left Velez on 7 May 1487 and advanced along the coast to Bezmiliana, about six miles from Málaga, where the road led between two heights defended by the Muslims. A fight ensued that continued until evening, when the Christians managed to turn the position and the Muslims retreated to the Gebalfaro fortress. The landward height was converted into a Christian strong point, and they began construction of works encircling the city. These were either a trench and palisade, or an earth embankment where the ground was too rocky for excavation. A fleet of armed ships, galleys and caravels placed in the harbor cut off all access to the city from the sea.

The first Christian attack was against the landward suburb. They breached the wall, and after strong resistance the Muslims were driven back into the city. King Ferdinand II sent an expedition to the ruins of Algeciras to retrieve stone balls used in the Siege of Algeciras (1342-1344) so they could be used against Málaga. Queen Isabella joined her husband, accompanied by her court and by various high clergymen and nobles, a move that helped to boost morale.

The Muslims kept up fire from the city on the Christian lines, and made repeated sallies, sometimes in strength. There were also attempts to relieve the city. In one case El Zagal sent a body of cavalry from Guadix, but a stronger force sent by Abdallah intercepted and defeated it. Abdallah followed up by sending costly gifts to the Catholic monarchs and assuring them of his friendly disposition. In return, the monarchs agreed to leave his subjects in peace and to allow non-military trade between Granada and Spain. Málaga began to run short of food supplies. The Christians received two Flemish transports with military supplies sent by the Emperor of Germany.

Ferdinand had intended starve the city out, but became impatient with the delays and began construction of mobile siege towers that could be used to bridge the walls, and mines to enter the city from below or to undermine the walls. The Muslims attacked and destroyed the towers, counter-mined and drove out the Christians, and sent out armed vessels against the Christian fleet.