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August 19

Saints Days : Juan Eudes, Marano, Luis and Magín
San Magín fiestas in Tarragona

1487 - Catholic Kings, in the framework of the so-called "Reconquista" - conquer Malaga. Islamic period ends and begins the worst period of anticultural, xenophobic and anti-Semitic religious obscurantism in the history of Spain.
1604 - Eighty Years War; a besieging Dutch and English army led by Maurice of Orange forces the Spanish garrison of Sluis to capitulate  
1796 - Spain & France sign anti-British alliance
1976 - More than 25,000 demonstrate in Jaén in defence of the Olive workers
2010 - Forty people are injured after a bull leaps into a crowd in Tafalla, Spain; the bull is killed
2022 - A giant megalithic complex of more than 500 standing stones were discovered in Huelva, spanning some 600 hectares 'This is the biggest and most diverse collection of standing stones grouped together in the Iberian peninsula' said José Antonio Linares, a researcher at Huelva University

Íñigo López de Mendoza - https://dbe.rah.es/
1398 - Íñigo López de Mendoza y de la Vega, 1st Marquis of Santillana, was a Castillian politician and poet who held an important position in society and literature during the reign of John II of Castile and is especially remembered for his 'serranillas', which are small poems that focus on commonplace subjects. He also wrote pastoral novels inspired by the French tradition, and was originator of the Castilian Sonnet 
He was born at Carrión de los Condes in Old Castile to a noble family which figured prominently in the arts. His grandfather, Pedro González de Mendoza I and his father, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Admiral of Castile, were both poets with close ties to the great literary figures of the time: Chancellor Lopez de Ayala, Fernán Pérez de Guzmán and Gómez Manrique
His mother, Doña Leonor Lasso de la Vega, was a wealthy heiress belonging to the House of Lasso d la Vega
Lopez de Mendoza's father died when he was five years old, which brought his family into financial difficulties. Part of his childhood was spent living in his grandmother's household, and in the home of his uncle, the future Archbishop of Toledo. As a youth, he spent time in the court king Alfonso V of Aragón, where he was exposed to the works of poets in the Provençal, Valencia and Catalan traditions, the classic Humanist works of Virgil and Dante Alighieri, and the lyricism of troubadours such as Enrique de Villena
In 1412, Don Íñigo married a wealthy heiress, Catarina Suárez de Figueroa. With this union, he acquired great fortune and became one of the most powerful nobles of his time. His sixth son from the marriage  would one day become Cardinal Mendoza
As a politician, Don Íñigo remained loyal to Juan II throughout his life, for which he was richly rewarded with land and the title of Marquess of Santillana in 1445, after the First Battle of Olmedo. When his wife Doña Catarina de Figueroa died, the Marquess retired to his palace of Guadalajara to spend the rest of his life in peaceful study and contemplation  (d. 1458)
1606 - Maria Anna of Spain (d. 1646)
1846 - Luis Martín, religious leader, 24th Superior General of the Society of Jesus , born in Melgar de Fernamental, Burgos (d. 1906)
1869 - Isidro Gomá, cleric and writer (d. 1940)
1916 - Mariano Aguilar, professor and politician (d. 1992)
1919 - Joaquín Soler Serrano, journalist and radio presenter (d. 2010)
1940 - José Luis Balbín, journalist.
1955 - Manolo García, singer from the group El Último de la Fila.
1966 - Lilian Garcia, Spanish-American ring announcer and singer born in Madrid
1977 - Iban Mayo, cyclist born in Igorre

Ramon Berenguer IV - https://dbe.rah.es/
1245 - Ramon Berenguer IV  was a member of the House of Barcelona, who ruled as Count of Provence and Forcalquier. He was the first count of Provence to live in the country in more than one hundred years. During the minority of a previous count, the regency was exercised by Ramon Berenguer IV de Barcelona, who is sometimes counted among the counts of Provence
Ramon Berenguer was the son of Alfonso II, Count of Provence and Garsenda, Countess of Forcalquier. After his father's death (1209), Ramon's mother sent him to the Templar castle of Monzón in Aragón.  He was accompanied by his cousin Jaime, whose life was also under threat. He left Monzón in 1216 to claim his inheritance, which included the county of Forcalquier- inherited from his mother
On 5 June 1219, Ramon Berenguer married Beatrice of Savoy, daughter of Thomas, Count of Savoy. She was a shrewd and politically astute woman, whose beauty was likened by Matthew Paris to that of a second Niobe  The wedding also provided the 21-year-old Ramon with a powerful father-in-law to aid him in establishing his authority and protecting his interests

Ramon Berenguer and his wife were known for their support of troubadours, always having some around the court. He was known for his generosity, though his income did not always keep up. He wrote laws prohibiting nobles from performing menial work, such as farming or heavy labour.

Ramon Berenguer had many border disputes with his neighbors, the counts of Toulouse. In 1226, Ramon began to reassert his right to rule in Marseille. The citizens there initially sought the help of Ramon's father-in-law Thomas, Count of Savoy in his role as imperial vicar. However, they later sought the help of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse.

In 1228, Ramon Berenguer supported his father-in-law in a double-sided conflict against Turin and Guigues VI of Veinous. This small war was one of many rounds intended to more firmly establish control over trade from Italy into France, and Provence included several key routes.

While the Albigensian Crusade worked in his favor against Toulouse, Ramon Berenguer was concerned that its resolution in the Treaty of Paris left him in a precarious position. Raymond turned his troops from fighting France to attempting to claim lands from Provence.  When Blanche of Castile sent her knight to both Toulouse and Provence in 1233, Ramon Berenguer entertained him lavishly, and the knight left well impressed by both the count and his eldest daughter, Margaret. Soon after, Blanche negotiated the marriage between Margaret and her son, Louis, with a dowry of ten thousand silver marks. Ramon Berenguer had to get contributions from allies for a portion, and had to pledge several of his castles to cover the rest. Ramon Berenguer and Beatrice travelled with their daughter to Lyon in 1234 to sign the marriage treaty, and then Margaret was escorted to her wedding in Sens by her uncles William and Thomas of Savoy.

Shortly after, William began negotiating on Ramon Berenger’s behalf with Henry III of England to marry his daughter Eleanor. Henry sent his own knight to Provence early in 1235, and again Ramon Berenguer and his family entertained him lavishly. Henry wrote to William on June 22 that he was very interested, and sent a delegation to negotiate the marriage in October. Henry was seeking a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister, Isabella. However, he had drafted seven different versions of the marriage contract, with different amounts for the dowry, the lowest being zero. Ramon Berenguer shrewdly negotiated for that option, offering as consolation a promise to leave her ten thousand marks in his last will.

In 1238, Ramon Berenguer joined his brother-in-law Amadeus IV at the court of Emperor Frederick II in Turin. Frederick was gathering forces to assert more control in Italy. Raymond VII of Toulouse was also summoned, and all expected to work together in the war.

In January 1244, Pope Innocent IV decreed that no one but the pope could excommunicate Ramon Berenguer In 1245, Ramon Berenguer sent representatives to the First Council of Lyon, to discuss crusades and the excommunication of Frederick.

Ramon Berenguer died in August 1245 in Aix-en-Provence, leaving the county to his youngest daughter, Beatrice.(b 1195)
1882 - Juan Manuel de Manzanedo, merchant and banker (b 1803)
1912 - Antonio Rodríguez Martínez (el Tío de la Tiza), musician and composer (b. 1861)
1918 - Jaime Vera, politician (b. 1859)
1922 - Felipe Pedrell, composer and musician (b. 1841)
1936 - Federico García Lorca, poet, playwright, and director (b. 1898)
1970 - Soledad Miranda, Spanish actress and singer (b. 1943)
1974 - Wifredo Ricart, engineer (b. 1897)
2002 - Eduardo Chillida, sculptor (b. 1908)
2007 - Carlos Trias Sagnier, essayist and writer (b. 1946)