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December 18

Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza

1118 - Alfonso I of Aragón conquers Zaragoza from the Almoravid and makes it the capital of his kingdom.

Alfonso I of Aragón by Pradilla (1879) - www.wikipedia.es
1499 - A rebellion breaks out in Alpujarras in response to the forced conversions of Muslims in Spain
1812 - The first special Christmas draw in Spain’s National Lottery takes place in Cádiz.
1837 - Guido García Gutiérrez opens the work The Monk King which is about the Bell of Huesca.
1968 - UN approves Resolution 2429, which states that the maintenance of the colonial situation of Gibraltar is contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter.
1975 - Mexico reopens diplomatic relations with Spain, suspended during the Francisco Franco's dictatorship and after the Civil War, although the republican government remains in exile 
1979 - Cataluña’s second Statute of Autonomy, the first of the newly-democratic Spain, comes into legal force.
1995 - Javier Solana takes over as NATO secretary general.
2014 - In a tribute chaired by King Felipe VI, and advised by Pérez-Reverte, the painter Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau formalizes the donation of his work "The last battle of the Glorious" at the Naval Museum in Madrid.

890 - Abd al-Rahmän ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd Alláh ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahän al-Däkhil or 'Abd al Rahmän III, was the Umayyad Emir of Córdoba from 912 to 929, at which point he founded the Caliphate of Córdoba, serving as its first caliph until his death (Oct 15, 961 Medina Azahara Córdoba)
1893 - José Rojas Moreno, diplomat (d. 1973)
José Ibáñez Martín - https://revistadepedagogia.org/
1896 - José Ibáñez Martín, was a politician who was a long-serving member of the Cabinet of Francisco Franco. From 1939 to 1967 he also served as President of the Spanish National Research Council (d. 1969)
1902 - Paco Martínez Soria, actor (d. 1982)
1906 - Victoriano Crémer, poet and novelist (d. 2009)
1930 - Jesús Puente, actor and television presenter. (d. 2000)
1938 - Lucía Baquedano, novelist.
1957 - El Zurdo, musician and thinker (Kaka de Luxe, Paraíso, La Mode).
1960 - María Antonia Trujillo, politician.
1962 - Juanma Rodríguez, journalist.
1966 - Óscar Artetxe, footballer.
1968 - Alejandro Sanz, singer-songwriter and guitarist born in Madrid
1969 - Santiago Cañizares, footballer
1971 - Tennis player, Arantxa Sánchez Vicario, the first Spanish player to be ranked first worldwide in both singles and doubles. (US Open 1994, French Open 1989, 94, 98) born in Barcelona
1994 - Gerard Gumbau, professional footballer.

821 - Theodulf of Orléans, bishop and poet (b. 750)
1316 - Juan Fernández bishop-elect of León 
1842 - Francisco Copons y Navia, soldier. (b. 1764)
1883 - Francisco Méndez Álvaro, doctor, writer and politician (b. 1806)
1936 - Leonardo Torres Quevedo, the engineer, mathematician and inventor who built Spain’s first dirigible. (b. 1852)