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December 31

Saint’s Day for Silvestre, and Nuestra Señora de la Leche y Buen Parto.

1147 - In Tortosa, Ramón Berenguer IV reconquest the city.
1229 - James I of Aragon the Conqueror enters Medina Mayurqa (now known as Palma, Spain) thus consummating the Christian reconquest of the island of Mallorca.
1229 - The city of Palma de Mallorca - in the hands of the Muslims, is conquered by Jaime I the Conqueror.
1431 - In Granada, Yusuf IV is proclaimed Sultan, after a popular revolt that detrones to Muhammad IX

1584 - Felipe II signed with the Catholic League, led by Enrique de Guisa, the Treaty of Joinville, by which they pledged to expel the Protestants.
1704 - on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands), Teide volcano erupts.
1784 - Carlos III establishes the penalty of galley to reinforce the fight against the pirates.
1832 - King Ferdinand VII publicly states that the decree by which he had repealed the Pragmatic Sanction was devoid of value.
1844 - A Royal Order for the creation of the railroads is approved.
1874 - An interim government is formed under the direction of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo after the coup the military Arsenio Martínez Campos and declared the restoration of the monarchy, after the joining of the general captain of Castilla la Nueva, Primo de Rivera 
1912 - The Institute of Legal Medicine is created.
1913 - The Ministry of the Interior establishes censorship on cinematographic material.
1973 - Francisco Franco appoints Carlos Arias Navarro, president of the Spanish Government, after the murder eleven days before of Admiral Carrero Blanco.
1982 - In the Basque Country, the Basque language, with the message of the Basque lehendakari Carlos Garaikoetxea, starts broadcasting (in tests) the Euskal Telebista signal. Years later, it would rename itself, Euskal Telebista Bat.
1998 - The last day of the peseta as Spain’s official currency. It remained in use until the introduction of the euro on 1st January 2002, with a further transitional period until 30th June that year.
2001 - The government of Jose Maria Aznar eliminates compulsory military service.
2008 - At the EITB headquarters in Bilbao, the ETA terrorist group places a bomb.
2023 - Iran's embassy in Spain that it had released the last Spanish national detained in the country, a tourist who was arrested shortly after he entered the country in October 2022 named as Santiago Sanchez Cogedor

1431 - Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 11 August 1492 until his death in 1503. Born into the prominent Borgia family in Jávea under the Crown of Aragón
1585 - Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, general and politician, 24th Governor of the Duchy of Milan (d. 1645)
1617 - Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, generally believed that the 17th century Baroque religious painter was born in Sevilla.
1741 - Isabel de Borbón-Parma, wife of future Holy Roman emperor, born in Madrid (d. 1763)
1815 - George Godo Meade, Spanish-American Major General (Union Army) born in Cádiz (d. 1872)
1838 - José Vega Peláez, archaeologist.
1844 - Ricardo Balaca y Canseco, painter.
1855 - Manuel Martínez Riesgo,picador bullfighter.
1889 - José Miguel de Barandiaran Ayerbe, priest, anthropologist, ethnologist and archaeologist (d, 1991) considered the "patriarch of Basque culture."
1907 - Ramón de la Fuente Leal, footballer (d. 1973)
1914 - José Manuel Lara, editor.
1917 - José María Gironella Pous, writer, National Prize for Literature in 1953, Planet Ateneo de Sevilla Prize Award in 1971 and 1988, born in Madrid
1935 - Carlos Ballesteros, theatre actor and director (d. 2011)
1937 - Francisco Gabica, cyclist.
1945 - Concha Márquez Piquer, singer.
1947 - Joaquín Araujo, writer and ecologist.
1954 - Pedro Zarraluki, narrator.
1970 - Carlos Morales Quintana, Spanish-Danish architect and sailor
1971 - Ricardo López Felipe, footballer.
1977 - Marta Hazas, actress.
1984 - Perla (Luis Fernández), actor.
1996 - J. J. Arcega-Whiteside, Spanish-American football player

1588 - Luis de Granada, OP was a Dominican friar who was noted as theologian, writer and preacher. The cause of his canonisation has been long open with the Holy See, with his current status being Venerable (b. 1504 in Granada)
1936 - Miguel de Unamuno, writer and philosopher. (b. Sep 29, 1864 Bilbao)
1953 - Cristóbal de Castro, writer and journalist (b. 22 Nov 1874 Madrid)
1957 - Óscar Domínguez, surrealist painter. (b. 1906)
2000 - Manuel de Rivacoba, politician. (b. Sep 9, 1925 Madrid)
2001 - Javier Benjumea Puigcerver, businessman and politician (b. Jan 14, 1915 Sevilla)
2005 - Lorenzo Gomis, poet and journalist. (b. Mar 4 1924 Barcelona)
2012 - Moisés Broggi, doctor and pacifist (b. 1908).
2012 - Andreu Vivó, gymnast (b. 1978).