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January 4

Saint’s Day for Roger, Aquilino, Rigoberto, and Cayo.

1493 - Christopher Columbus began his journey back to Spain from the Spanish island, modern city of Santo Domingo, capital of Dominican Republic.

1698 - Cataluña, under the Peace of Ryswick, the troops of the Duke of Vendome evacuates Barcelona.
1762 -  Seven Years War Britain declares war on Spain and Naples.
1805 - Spain and France sign an agreement on military and naval support to invade Britain.
1823 - Seville suffers one of the worst floods in its history when the Guadalquivir River bursts its banks.
1833 - Fernando VII restored the Pragmatic Sanction, under which is designated heir to his daughter Isabel II of Spain to the detriment of his brother Carlos María Isidro de Borbón.
1857 - In Barcelona the railway line opened between Mataró and Arenys de Mar.
1874 - In Zaragoza, Republicans carry out a riot following the State coup by General Manuel Pavía.
1882 - the first edition of La Voz de Galicia is published. The newspaper is now in its 126th year.
1904 - The first aeronautical laboratory in Spain is created.
1946 - American company IBM donated to Francisco Franco 109,000 pesetas for them to be distributed among the poorer classes of Spain.
1969 - Spain returns the province of Ifni to Morocco.
1977 - The Spanish Parliament approved the Law 17/1977, which allows the names of people to enroll in the registry office in any of the Spanish languages.
1999 - One of the witnesses in the case of the Spanish citizen, sentenced to death in the United States, Joaquín José Martínez, acknowledges that he lied during the trial.
2024 - Spain generated more than half of its electricity from renewable sources such as wind and solar power in 2023 in a "historic" record, the national power grid. According to data from the Red Eléctrica Espanola (REE), the production of electricity from renewable sources reached nearly 135,000 GWh last year, the equivalent of 50.4 percent of the overall national energy mix.

Ramón Casas i Carbó - https://dbe.rah.es/
1866 - Ramón Casas i Carbó was a Catalan artist. Living through a turbulent time in the history of his native Barcelona, he was known as a portraitist, sketching and painting the intellectual, economic  and political elite of Barcelona, Paris, Madrid and beyond (d. Feb 29, 1932 in Barcelona)
1892 - María Díaz Cortés, super-centenarian (d. 2009)
1898 - Maruxa Fandiño Ricart, Galician women, of the sisters Las Dos Marías (d 1980)
1912 - Celso Emilio Ferreiro Míguez, writer and politician.
1913 - Manuel Andújar, writer (d. 1994).
1913 - Sixto Ríos García, mathematician and academic (d. 2008)
1923 - Félix Alcalá Galiano, soldier.
1929 - Antonio Barrera de Irimo, politician.
1932 - The internationally-renowned film director, Carlos Saura, was born on this day in Huesca. Along with Luis Buñuel and Pedro Almodóvar, he is counted among the Spain’s three most renowned filmmakers. He has a long and prolific career that spans over half a century. Several of his films have won many international awards. Saura began his career in 1955 making documentary shorts. He quickly gained international prominence when his first feature-length film premiered at Cannes Film Festival in 1960. Although he started filming as a neorealist, Saura quickly switched to films encoded with metaphors and symbolism in order to get around the Spanish censors. In 1966, he was thrust into the international spotlight when his film La Caza won the Silver Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. In the following years, he forged an international reputation for his cinematic treatment of emotional and spiritual responses to repressive political conditions. By the 1970s, Saura was the best known filmmaker working in Spain. His films employed complex narrative devices and were frequently controversial. He won Special Jury Awards for La Prima Angélica (1973) and Cría Cuervos (1975) in Cannes; and an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film nomination in 1979 for Mama Cumple 100 Años. In the 1980s, Saura was in the spotlight for his Flamenco trilogy – Bodas de Sangre, Carmen and El Amor Brujo, in which he combined dramatic content and flamenco dance forms. (d. 20 Feb 2023)
1943 - Jesús Torbado, writer and journalist.
1950 - Joan Baptista Humet, singer songwriter (d. 2008)
1957 - Isidoro Fernández, actor.
1959 - Fernando Aramburu, writer.
1973 - Laia Marull, actress.
1978 - Mai Meneses, singer in the group Nena Daconte born in Madrid
1980 - Alexandra Jiménez, actress.
1995 - María Isabel, singer.
1990 - Iago Falqué, footballer.
1995 - María Isabel López, singer (Antes muerta que sencilla - I'd rather be dead than understated) born in Ayamonte, Huelva

1399 - Nicolas Eymerich Catalan Theologian and inquisitor (b. 1320)
1825 - Ferdinand I, Spanish king of Sicily between 1759 and 1825 (b .1751)
1895 - General Manuel Pavía, who led the coup which ended the First Spanish Republic. (b. 1827)
1920 - Benito Pérez Galdós, author and playwright (b. 1843)
1928 - Cocherito de Bilbao, bullfighter (b. 1876)
1940 - Manuel González García, prelate (b. 1877)
1979 - Serafín Adame, writer and journalist. (b. 1901)
1999 - José Vela Zanetti, painter (b. 1913)
2000 - José Antonio Fernández Ordóñez, engineer and road builder. (b. 1933)
2003 - Antonio Ramírez González, doctor and surgeon (b. 1921)
2019 - Francisco Olivencia,  lawyer and politician (b. 1934)
2022 - María Mérida, folk singer (b, 1926)