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January 1

Saint’s Day for Santísima María Madre de Dios, the Solemnity of Mary Mother of God, to commemorate the divine motherhood of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A national holiday in Spain
1369 - Louis II the Good, Duke of Bourbon, institutes the Order of the Golden Shield.
1432 - In Granada Yusuf IV is proclaimed sultán after a popular rebellion which dethroned Muhammad IX.
1504 - In Italy, the Spanish army enters Gaete, ending the war between France and Spain by Naples.
1515 - King Francisco I reaches the throne.
1567 - Felipe II issues an edict forbidding the language, dress and customs of the Moriscos – the Moors who had converted to Christianity after the reconquest of Spain. The Moriscos rose in revolt in Granada in 1568 (known as the rebellion of the Alpujarra), and all Moriscos were finally expelled from Spain between 1609 and 1614 by Felipe III.
General Rafael de Riego - https://es.wikipedia.org/
1820 - General Rafael de Riego leads an uprising in Cabezas de San Juan, Seville, against Fernando VII and demanded the return of the 1812 Constitution, which had been suspended by the King when he was restored to the throne in 1814. It was the first of a series of military uprisings, and the King finally swore allegiance to the Constitution in March that year. Fernando was restored as absolute monarch in 1823.
1850 - The first adhesive postage stamps are issued in Spain for prepaid mailing of correspondence.
1860 - Spanish victory at the Battle of Castillejos.
1879 - Barcelona Republican satirical weekly L'Esquella of Tortaza reissued.
1885 - The first regulation of the Ateneo de Madrid comes into force.
1899 - In Cataluña the diario La Veu newspaper is published for the first time.
1899 - The Spanish Army hands over Cuba to the United States.
1901 - Spain adopts Greenwich Mean Time.
1903 - Launch of ABC newspaper.
1910 - Spanish first began the year eating twelve grapes to the sound of the bells, according to a French custom.
1913 - Antonio Maura resigns from the head of the Conservative Party.
1921 - La Gaceta de Madrid permission to build in Moncloa Faculty of Medicine and the Clinical Hospital published.
1925 - Spanish premiere at the theater work Hernani adaptation of Antonio and Manuel Machado, from the novel by Victor Hugo.
1933 - In La Felguera (Spain) several powerful bombs' explode and numerous disturbances in Seville that lengthen for several days in cities of Spain, known as the Revolution in January 1933 succeed.
1939 - In Spain, It becomes obligatory for all young people under 25 years old, to work for a year in compulsory labor service.
1948 - It takes effect in Spain the GATT (General Agreement on Customs Tariffs and Trade).
1952 - Javier de Borbón Parma self-proclaimed king to a group of Chartists.
1963 - Mandatory Health Insurance makes a polio vaccination campaign in mass.
1964 - The first development Spain started today.
1965 - In Spain direct reading of the Gospel and the epistles in vernacular languages are no longer banned.
1974 - Hispanic Moroccan fisheries agreement by which 200 Spanish vessels may fish in Moroccan waters close to signing.
1986 - Spain and Portugal become members of the European Economic Community. IVA (Value Added Tax) is introduced in Spain.
2006 - The Smoking Law (ley antitabaco) comes into effect.
2020 - Spain takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union from Sweden

1100 -  In Ceuta - Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muslim writer, historian, geographer, egyptologist, cartographer, botanist who served in the court of King Roger II at Palermo (d. 1165)
1431 - Pope Alexander VI, pope of the Catholic Church 1492–1503 (d. 1503)
1511 - Henry, Duke of Cornwall, was the first living child of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife, Catherine of Aragón, and though his birth was celebrated as that of heir apparent, he died within weeks ( d. Feb 22, 1511)
1526 - San Luis Beltran, Spanish saint of the Dominican order (d. 1581).
1586 - Pau Claris i Casademunt , was a Catalan lawyer, clergyman and 94th President of the Deputation of the General of Catalonia at the beginning of the Catalan Revolt. (d. 27-Feb-1641)
1618 - Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Basque artist (The Vision of St. Anthony) born in Sevilla (d. 1682) 
1749 - José María Chacón, was the last Spanish Governor of Trinidad. He was responsible for signing the Cedula of Population in 1783 (which led to extensive French immigration to Trinidad), founded the city of San Fernando in 1784 and surrendered the island of Trinidad to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. The King of Spain set up a "Council of War" to look into the surrender. By Royal Decree, Chacon and Rear Admiral Sebastián Ruiz de Apodaca (who had scuttled his small fleet) were banished for life from the "Royal Domain." Apodaca's case was reconsidered and he was reinstated in 1809, but Chacón died in exile. (d. 1833)
1803 - Isidora Zegers, artist and composer in Madrid She is known for her contributions to Chilean culture during the 19th century.
María Micaela Desmaisières - Photo Wikipedia 
1809 - Maria Micaela Desmaisieres, saint in religion María Micaela of the Blessed Sacrament - was a Spanish Roman Catholic professed religious and the founder of the Handmaids of the Blessed Sacrament. Desmaisières grew up around several European monarchs since her brother - whom she travelled with - was an ambassador to such courts though she later decided to take care of girls and women of a poorer socio-economic background which extended to the care of the ill.The sainthood cause opened on 19 August 1902 under Pope Leo XIII - she was titled as a Servant of God - (d. 24 Aug 1865)
1848 - Higinio Anglés, priest and musician (d. 1969)
1862 - Rogelio Vigil de Quiñones, military and physician, one of the last of the Philippines (d. 1934)
1916 - José Amador de los Ríos and Serrano, historian, literary critic and archeologist.
1872 - Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer, soldier.
1986 - Manuel Pardinas, anarchist who assassinated Prime Minister José Canalejas the November 12, 1912.
1888 - Higinio Anglés, priest (d. 1969)
Maria Luz Morales - Photo Wikipedia 
1898 - María Luz Morales, was a pioneering Spanish cultural journalist and writer of the 20th century. She was the first woman in Spain to direct a national newspaper, La Vanguardia, which she managed during the period of 1936 and 1937 at the beginning of the Guerra Civil Española.In 1939, she was detained for 40 days and was professionally unable to work because of Francoism. With the return to democracy, she continued her work, collaborating with Diario de Barcelona until her death, at the age of 91. She was instrumental in the incorporation of women for journalistic and literary activity in España del siglo XX.
1900 - Xavier Cugat, Spanish-American singer-songwriter and actor (d. 1990)
1900 - Aurora Redondo, actress (d. 1996)
1900 - María Rosa Urraca Pastor, politician (d. 1984)
1916 - Alfonso Escámez, banker (d. 2010)
Sara Berenguer Laosa https://en.wikipedia.org/
1919 - Sara Berenguer Laosa,  was a Spanish Catalan militant anarchist-syndicalist, anarcha-feminist, and writer active in the Mujeres Libres movement. (d. 08-Jun-2010)
1926 - José Manuel Estepa, archbishop.
1927 - Vicente Cano, poet.
1928 - Carlos Barral, poet and editor (d. 1989).
1931 - Ana Domingo Nieto, educator, linguist and teacher who became blind at age 61.
1936 - Manuel Revuelta González, historian.
1937 - Ramón Ayerra, lawyer, writer and humorist.
1941 - Simón Andreu, actor.
1944 - Eloy de la Iglesia, Basque film director.
1945 - Betty Missiego, singer.
1947 - Celso Bugallo, actor.
1948 - Solidad Maestre, jurist and politician in Madrid
1955 - Jesús María Zamora, footballer.
1957 - Federico del Barrio, historian and illustrator.
1957 - Isabel Ordaz, actress.
1958 - Emilio Tuñón, architect in Madrid
1963 - José Manuel Entrecanales Domecq, businessman.
1967 - Juanma Bajo Ulloa, film maker.
1970 - Roberto Álamo, actor in Madrid
1973 - José Ignacio Inchausti, rugby union footballer and coach in Madrid
1979 - Gisela, singer.
1979 - Antonio Maeso, motorcycle racer in Madrid
1981 - Óscar Miñambres footballer in Madrid
1983 - Daniel Jarque, footballer (d. 2009)
1984 - Fernando San Emeterio Lara, basketball player.
1987 - Ruth Ndoumbe, triple jumper in Madrid

1387 - Charles II of Navarre (b. 1332)
1504 - Pedro de Valdivia, conquistador and first governor of Chile.
1912 - Cleto Zavala, composer (b. 1847).
1954 - José Millán-Astray, soldier (b. 1879).
1962 - Diego Martínez Barrio  a politician during the Second Spanish Republic. Prime Minister of Spain between 9 October 1933 and 26 December 1933 (b Nov 25 1883 in Sevilla)
1985 - José Artés de Arcos, businessman (b. 1893)
2003 - Alicio Garcitoral, writer and politician (b. 1902)
2011 - Jiaser, cartoonist (b. 1927)
2019 -  Joan Guinjoan, composer and pianist (b. 1931)
2019 - José Antonio Pujante, politician (b. 1964)