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January 16

Saint’s Day for Marcelo.

929 - Abderramán III proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba.
1492 - The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella I.
1493 - Christopher Columbus discovers several Bahamas islands, eastern Cuba and North of Haiti 
1556 - The Holy Roman Emperor, Carlos I of Spain, gives up the crown of Castilla and Aragón in favour of his son, Felipe II.


1605 - The first edition of ‘El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha’ is published in Madrid.
1716 - Madrid Decree of New Plant for Catalonia is enacted.
1809 - The French army of Napoleon in La Coruna defeat the British army.
1834 - Establishment of the judicial division of the country.
1861 - An undersea telegraph line laid between the Balearic Islands and the Peninsula comes into operation.
1906 - In Morocco the Algeciras Conference begins in order to decide the fate of the African country. Participating Spain, France, Germany and the UK.
1973 - The businessman Felipe Huarte is kidnapped by ETA terrorists in Pamplona. He was set free after nine days in captivity.
1984 - In Catalonia, after 5 months and 6 days in tests started regular programming on Catalan TV3.
2022 - The government will pay €8 million to bring down the cost of the antigen tests to €2.94 having purchased then for €31 a week earlier 

1562 - Juan de Torres Osorio, priest (d. 1633).
1745 - Antonio José de Cavanilles, leading botanist, was born in Valencia
1747 - Antonio José Cavanilles, was a leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century. He named many plants, particularly from Oceania. He named at least 100 genera, about 54 of which were still used in 2004, including Dahlia, Calycera, Cobaea, Galphimia, and Oleandra. (d. 05-May-1804)
1832 - Antonio Comellas y Cluet. Gómez Izquierdo, his biographer, says, that "as a philosopher, he [Comellas] was the only thinker who obeying the impulse of his scientific inquisitiveness, rather than the influence and stimulus of those about him, devoured all the most interesting philosophical literature of Europe of his time" and that "in his active mind the echoes of the spiritualism of the Catalan School and the first murmurs of the Thomistic revival reverberated". Some view him as one of the precursors of Neo-Scholasticism in Spain. (d. 03-Jun-1884)
1843 - Blessed Rafaela Ybarra Arambarri de Vilallonga was a Spanish Roman Catholic widow and the founder of the Sisters of the Holy Guardian Angels. Vilallonga was part of Bilbao's upper-class and she mothered seven children with her husband José Vilallonga.Her beatification was celebrated on 30 September 1984. (d. 23-Feb-1900)
1877 - Marcelo Adrián Obregón, soldier and one of the last of the Philippines. (d. 1939).
1881 - Alberto Romea was a Spanish actor Romea appeared in more than fifty films during his career including Lola, the Coalgirl (1952). (d. 14-Apr-1960)
1882 - Francisco de Borbón y de la Torre, He was a cousin of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and was styled as Duke of Seville (jure uxoris) by virtue of his marriage in 1907 to the 4th Duchess of Seville. (d.06-Dec-1952) 
1894 - José Manuel Puelles de los Santos was a Spanish physician.He was killed by the military coup against the Second Spanish Republic. (d. 05-Aug-1936)
1900 - Juan López Sanchez, construction worker, anarchist and member of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT, National Confederation of Labor), and one of the founders of the Federación Sindicalista Libertaria. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) he was Minister of Commerce under Francisco Largo Caballero. After the war he spent several years in exile before returning to Spain where he lived without persecution and participated in the "vertical" trade union movement authorized by the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. (d, 01-Jan-1972)
1905 - Ernesto Halffter, classical and film score composer (Rapsodia portuguesa; Don Quixote de la Mancha) and conductor, born in Madrid. (d. 1898)
1918 - Marcelo González Martín, was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain. Gonzalez Martin was born in Villanubla, Valladolid Province as the son of Marcelo González, a small merchant; and Costanza Martín.(d. 2004).
1920 - Josep Gonzalvo, footballer (d. 1978).
1924 - Eugenio Giner, historian (d. 1994).
1928 - Pilar Lorengar, (Lorenza Pilar García) Aragonés soprano, born in El Gancho, Zaragoza (d. 1996).
1928 - María del Carmen "Menchu" Álvarez del Valle is a Spanish radio journalist and paternal grandmother of the Queen of Spain, Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano.
Infante Carlos of Calabria - photo https://timenote.info/en/Carlos-Duke-of-Calabria
1938 - Carlos Maria Alfonso Marcelo de Borbón-Dos Sicilias y de Borbón-Parma, Infante of Spain, Duke of Calabria was, at his death, the last infante of Spain during the reigns of his cousins King Juan Carlos I and King Felipe VI. Additionally, he was also one of two claimants to the headship of the dynasty which ruled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies prior to its incorporation into the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, in which capacity he was also the Grand Master of one of the three branches of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. (d. 05-Oct-2015)
1954 - Pedro Mari Sánchez, actor.
1959 - Ramón María Calderé, footballer and trainer.
1960 - Luis de Guindos, He was the Minister of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness of Spain between 2011 and 2018.
1961 - José Manuel Ochotorena, footballer.
1966 - Alberto Puig, motorbike rider.
1971 - Sergi Bruguera, tennis player born in Barcelona
1971 - Armando Riveiro de Aguliar Malda, goalkeeper.
1974 - Àngel Llàcer Pinós, actor, television presenter and drama teacher. He attended the Institut del Teatre de Barcelona (1996–1997), and completed his education in San Miniato (Italy) and Berlin. He has worked as a drama teacher at ESADE and on the TV show Operación Triunfo and made his directorial debut with A Midsummer Night's Dream.
1974 - Juan Jacinto Muñoz Rengel, in Málaga He is well known in his native country for his short stories, and has won many awards. He is also known for his novels, including El asesino hipocondríaco (The Hypochondriac Hitman) and El gran imaginador (The Great Imaginator).
1978 - Koldo Gil, cyclist.
1980 - Bernabe Costas de Miranda, is a professional wheelchair basketball player As a member of Spain men's national wheelchair basketball team, he earned a bronze at the 2011 European Championships, and a fifth-place finish at the 2012 Summer Paralympics. He has spent most of his professional career playing for Aldasa Amfiv de Vigo in Spain's top level domestic wheelchair basketball league.
1984 - Jonathan James Dixon in Murcia, is a film and television producer and director, and a former professional footballer.
1984 - Sergio Pardilla Bellón is a professional road cyclist, who currently rides for UCI Professional Continental team Caja Rural–Seguros RGA.
1987 - Manuela Vellés Casariego, actress best known for her appearances in television series and films.
1988 - Vicente Iborra de la Fuente,  professional footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Villarreal CF. He amassed La Liga totals of 211 matches and 29 goals during eight seasons
1992 - Pedro José Martín Moren,  known simply as Pedro, is a Spanish footballer who plays for Gimnàstic de Tarragona as a striker.
1995 - Arantza Moreno Fernández is an athlete specialising in the javelin throw. She won a silver medal at the 2018 Ibero-American Championships. Her personal best in the event is 59.69 metres set in Castellón in 2018.
1997 - Samuel "Samu" Casado Conde is a footballer who plays for AD Alcorcón as a goalkeeper.

1391 - Muhammad V, King of Granada.
1606 - Baltasar del Alcázar, poet (b. 1530).
1883 - Antonio López y López, sailor (b. 1817).
1970 - Francisco Cossío, painter (b. 1898).
1972 - Gregorio Modrego, priest (b. 1890).
1980 - Benjamín Palencia, painter (b. 1894).
1982 - Ramón J. Sender, writer (b. 1901).
2002 - Alfonso del Real, actor (b. 1916).
2005 - Agustín González,actor (b. 1930).
2011 - Augusto Algueró, composer, arranger and orchestra director (b. 1934).
2012 - Juan Carlos Pérez López, footballer (b. 1945).
2015 - ETA terrorist Josu Uribetxebarria Bolinaga
2015 - Pedro María Iguaran, footballer (Real Sociedad) (b. 1941)
2015 - Luis Marsans, painter (b. 1945)
2022 - Jaco Azafrani, football player (UD España, Rayo Vallecano) and manager (San Fernando) (b. 1933)