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January 9

Saint’s Day for Eulogio de Córdoba, and Basilisa.

638 - Sixth Council of Toledo.
681 - Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain.
1316 - Felipe V becomes King of France and Navarre after the death of his nephew Juan I.
1718 - France declares war on Spain

1809 - Arthur Wellesley arranges with Spain a treaty of friendship and military aid.
1812 - Valencia capitulates to French forces of Suchet, after four days of bombardment.

                                    Five peseta coin - photo www.coindatabase.com

1875 - Alfonso XII returns to Spain, landing at Barcelona in the frigate Navas de Tolosa from Marseille, following his proclamation as King by General Arsenio Martínez Campos on 29th December, marking the return of the monarchy after the brief First Spanish Republic
1887 - the Alcázar of Toledo is almost completely destroyed by fire.
1923 - In Madrid, Juan dela Cierva makes the first autogiro flight.
1927 - Spain puts on sale the novel by Vicente Blasco Ibanez At the foot of Venus.
1933 - Madrid, Cataluña, Valencia and other provinces start a revolutionary movement.
1951 - A division of the Sixth Fleet of the United States arrives at the port of Barcelona.
1959 - A dam gives way in the Vega de Tera reservoir, killing 145 of the 550 inhabitants of Ribadelago, Zamora.
1976 - Spain Liberal Democratic Grouping, Spanish Liberal Party base is created.
1998 - José Ignacio Iruretagoyena, a Partido Popular councillor in Zarautz, is murdered by ETA terrorists.
2001 - In Zarautz, ETA tries to kill the leadership of the Basque Popular Party.
2009 - The Madrid-Barajas Airport had to close its facilities for 5 hours as a result of the great fall snowfall.
2018 - Mas abandons surrounded by justice and because of Puigdemont’. The architect of the process has left politics charged with rebellion, his assets embargoed, and singled out for corruption in the Palau case and for ignoring the most radical in his party.
2020 - A vegetarian holidaymaker forced to isolate alone in a dingy hotel in Tenerife after contracting Covid on a £9,000 family cruise claims she's been left starving after almost every meal came with meat.

1418 - Juan Ramón Folch III de Cardona, Aragonese admiral (d. 1485)
1779 - Infanta María Amalia  was a Spanish princess. She was a daughter of King Charles IV of Spain, in 1795, she married her uncle Infante Antonio Pascual of Spain. (d. 22-Jul-1798)
1844 - Julián Gayarre, opera singer who created the role of Marcello in Donizetti's Il Duca d'Alba and Enzo in Ponchielli's La Gioconda. Although he faced strong competition for this title from the likes of Roberto Stagno, Italo Campanini, Angelo Masini and Francesco Tamagno, Gayarre was regarded by many late 19th-century music commentators as being the supreme Italianate tenor of his generation. (d. 1890)
1851 - Luis Coloma, writer and journalist, known for creating the character Ratoncito Pérez.  Coloma was also a prolific writer of short stories and his complete works, which includes his novels, biographies, and other works, have since been collected in a multi-volume set. (d. 1915)
1855 - Eduardo Toda, diplomat, archaeologist, Egyptologist and monologue (d. 1941)
1871 - Francisco Serrat y Bonastre, diplomat (d. 1952)
1874 - José de Amézola y Aspizua, pelotari who competed at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. Amezola competed in the only official pelota contest in Olympic history, the Basque pelota at the
1900 Summer Olympics two-man teams event. He and his partner Francisco Villota defeated the French team, Maurice Durquetty and Etchegaray. This was Spain's first ever Olympic Medal. (d. 01-Jan-1922)
1888 - Marcelino Olaechea, priest Catholic religious, S.D.B, and Bishop of Pamplona during the Spanish Civil War. His father worked in the iron and steel industry and so on Olaechea's episcopal coat of arms, instead of lions rampant or eagles with two heads, a chimney of the Altos Hornos iron foundry at Bilbao appeared. He joined the Salesian Society of St John Bosco, and attained a high administrative position in that congregation, until 25 August 1935, when he was appointed Bishop of Pamplona. His episcopal consecration, at the hands of Federico Tedeschini, the Papal Nuncio, was celebrated in Madrid on 27 October. He was the first Salesian bishop of Spain. On 18 February 1946 he was translated to the Archbishop's see of Valencia and he died there on 21 October 1972.
1893 - Enrique Cano Iribarne "Gavira", bullfighter (d. 1927)
1902 - Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, the founder of Opus Dei. (d, 1975)
1906 - Óscar Domínguez, surrealist painter (d. 1957).
1920 - Rubén Ruiz Ibárruri, the only son of the Pasionaria. He reached the rank of Lieutenant in the Red Army and was made a Hero of the Soviet Union after his death on the Eastern Front in the Battle of Stalingrad. (d. 1942)
1920 - José Luis de Vilallonga, writer and actor (d. 2007).
1935 - Raúl Morodo, politician.
1939 - Kiko Arguello, lay religious.
1944 - Hugo Moyano, leader of the union CGT.
1957 - Manuel Sarabia, football player and trainer.
1964 - Juan Manuel Rodríguez Parrondo,  physicist. He is mostly popular for the invention of the Parrondo's paradox and his contributions in the thermodynamic study of information. 
Photo taken by Rogelio Bernal Andreo in October 2010 of the Orion constellation showing the surrounding nebulas of the Orion Molecular Cloud complex. Also captured is the red supergiant Betelgeuse (top left) and the famous belt of Orion composed of the OB stars Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka. To the bottom right can be found the star Rigel. The red crescent shape is Barnard's Loop.
1969 - Rogelio Bernal Andreo, Spanish-American astrophotographer. He is known for his photographs of deep sky objects. His work has been recognized by NASA as their Picture of the Day.Andreo's photography has been published in international magazines and periodicals, as well as television networks including the BBC, National Geographic, and the Discovery Channel series Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking. 
1974 - Jesulín de Ubrique, bullfighter.
1978 - Cristina Lasvignes, journalist and presenter.
1980 - Sergio García, golfer.
1985 - Juan Francisco Torres, footballer.
1988 - Marc Crosas, footballer.
1990 - Gizmo Varillas, born Guillermo Varillas Kortabarria songwriter, musician and record producer who lives in London since his childhood. Varillas played multiple instruments, engineered, arranged, produced and wrote each song on his first two albums.
1990 - Adriana Maldonado López. politician who was elected as a Member of the European Parliament in 2019. She has since been serving on the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.
1991 - Álvaro Soler singer-songwriter

1282 - Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd ibn Hakam al Qurashi, Minorcan ruler (b. 1204)
1798 - Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, IX Count of Aranda (79 years), Spanish soldier and statesman (b. 1718).
1853 - Juan Nicasio Gallego, priest and poet (b. 1777)
1979 - Miguel Cruz Cuenca, magistrate.
1983 - Joaquín Garrigues and Díaz-Cañabate, jurist.
1991 - Antonio León Ortega, sculptor (b. 1907)
2003 - Ramón Sabatés, draftsman.
2014 - Josep Maria Castellet, poet and critic (b. 1926)