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July 16

Saints days : Valentín, Fausto and Sisenando, Nuestra Señora del Carmen.

1212 – Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: After Pope Innocent III calls European knights to a crusade, forces of Kings Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal defeat those of the Berber Muslim leader Almohad, thus marking a significant turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.
1232 - The town of Arjona declares independence and names its native Muhammad ibn Yusef as ruler. This marks the Muhammad's first rise to prominence, he would later establish the Nasrid Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state in Spain

Miguel Indurain - photo www.laindurain.com

1251 - In Cambridge, the English religious Simon Stock says to have seen an apparition of the Virgin of the Carmen.
1769 - Father Junípero Serra from Spain founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego, California.
1809 - The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.
1849 - Vic (Cataluña), Antonio Maria Claret founded the Catholic religious congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, popularly known as the Claretians.
1971 - Franco appoints prince Juan Carlos as deputy
1979 - Beniaján the canonical coronation of the statue of Our Lady of Carmen, patroness of the city is performed.
2002 - on the island of Perejil starts at 23:43 Romeo-Sierra operation for the evacuation of the island, five days before it had been occupied by Moroccan forces.

1863 - Alfons Sala, politician (d. 1945)
1904 - Armando Buscarini poet (d. 1940)
1904 - Ricardo Núñez, actor and film director (d. 1998)
1921 - Miguel Labordeta, poet and dramatist
1929 - Carmelo Bernaola, composer (d. 2002)
1948 - Rita Barberá, Ex-Mayor of Valencia
1964 - Miguel Indurain, cyclist (Tour de France winner 1991-95) born in Villava
1974 - Espido Freire, writer.
1978 - Irene Visedo, actress.
1981 - Vicente Rodríguez, footballer
1988 - Sergio Busquets, footballer

851 - Sisenandus of Beja was a Christian deacon and martyr who was put to death during the reign of Abd al-Rahman II, Emir of Córdoba and is counted among the Martyrs of Córdoba. Sisenandus was born in an Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule, after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Islamic authorities accorded Christians dhimmi status, which allowed them to practice their religion with certain restrictions, such as a prohibition on public displays of faith. These Christians, called Mozarabs, came to adopt elements of Arabic culture while retaining their own (b 825 b.c)
1647 - Masaniello (Tommaso Aniello), Italian fisherman and leader of the 1647 Naples revolt against the rule of Habsburg Spain,  assassinated by a group of grain merchants aged 27
1740 - Mariana of Neuburg, Spanish Queen consort, between 1689 and 1700 
1885 - Rosalia de Castro, poet (b. 1837)
1918 - José de Diego, Puerto Rican patriot and advocate for Puerto Rico's independence from Spain and the US, aged 52
1976 - Carmelo Soria, Spanish-Chilean diplomat (b. 1921)
1990 - Miguel Muñoz, football player and trainer (b. 1922)