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July 19

Saints Days: Rufina, Aurea, Justa, Félix, Arsenio and Marín

711 - Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of Guadalete: Umayyad forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by King Roderic.
1068 - Sancho II of Castile beats his brother Alfonso VI of León
1131 - Ramón Berenguer IV assumed the government of the Catalan region after the death of his father Ramón Berenguer III.
1195 - Battle of Alarcos, Ciudad Real. Alfonso VIII of Castile is defeated.

Spanish Armada - Archive

1588 - Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines: The Spanish Armada is sighted in the English Channel.
1808 - Battle of Bailén.
1849 - Law to oblige the use of the Metric Decimal system in all transactions.
1900 - The first performance of the zarzuela by the Quintero brothers, ‘El Estreno’ – music by Ruperto Chapí.
1917 - On the initiative of the Regionalist League, the Spanish parliamentarians meet in Barcelona to protest the closure of Congress.
1917 - Railway and tram strike in Valencia ends with the death of two workers and numerous detained.
1919 - Allende Salazar forms new government.
1936 - Spanish Civil War: The CNT and UGT call a general strike - mobilising workers' militias against the Nationalist forces 
1936 - General Francisco Franco arrives at Tetuan and takes charge of Spanish Moroccan Army revolted. In Madrid the nineteenth republican government, presided over by Jose Giral, who decides to arm the people and the uprising fails Barcelona at the reaction of law enforcement supported by the CNT-FAI is formed.
1950 - Definitive approval of Opus Dei and the Santa Cruz Society.
1951 - The fourth Franco government is formed with two major developments: the creation of the new Ministry of Information and Tourism and the splitting of Commerce and Industry.
1960 - Nine workers die as they repair train lines near Barcelona.
1963 - Spanish boxer, Ben Alí is European Champion in featherweight category.
1974 - Franco enters hospital leaving his power provisionally in the hands of Prince Juan Carlos.
1978 - Adultery is depanelized.
1989 - Near the Military Government of Madrid, ETA kills two heads of the Quartermaster Corps of the Army.
2004 - Spanish Egyptologists initiate transcription of hieroglyphs Temple of Debod re-set in Madrid.
2022 - The heatwave caused 510 deaths and dozens of fires across Spain

Births
1803 - Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, writer (d. 1882)
1814 - Mariano Téllez-Girón y Beaufort Spontin, soldier (d. 1882)
1893 - Josep de Togores, painter (d. 1970)
1973 - Antonio Zabálburu, actor.
1992 - Eduardo García Martínez, actor.
2017 - Miguel Blesa - Puerto del Toro - banker found dead shot in the chest- sentenced by a first instance court to six years in prison for improper appropriation in the case of the black cards, was found where he usually hunted. The Guardia Civil suspect he shot himself with his own rifle.


Deaths
856 - Santa Áurea, martyr.
1564 - Pedro Fajardo y Chacón. 1st Marquis of los Vélez, Grandee and was a military and nobleman. His seat was at the Castillo de Vélez-Blanco. He was son of don Juan Chacón and wife dona Luisa Fajardo y Manrique de Lara, 2nd Countess and Lady of Cartagena (b. 1478 Murcia)
1800 - José de Rezabal y Ugarte, judge and politician (b. 1747)
1842 - Francisco Tadeo Calomarde, politician (b. 1773)
1891 - Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, writer (b. 1833)
1911 - Manuel Iradier, explorer (b. 1854)
1936 - Apel·les Mestres writer, cartoonist and musician (b. 1854)
1966 - Anselmo Albareda, Cardinal (b. 1892)
1977 - José Magdalena, cyclist (b. 1889)
1981 - José María Pemán, writer (b. 1897)
1994 - Ángel Salas Larrazábal, soldier and historian (b. 1906)
2003 - Maruchi Fresno, actress (b. 1916)
2010 - Luis Ignacio Sánchez, professor and jurist (b. 1948)
2011 - Carlos Sentís, journalist and politician (b. 1911)