Home Features History Letters from Spain New Arrivals Profiles Recipes Sightseeing Vocabulary Weather

November 6

Saint’s Day for Leonardo, Severo, and Ático.

1528 - the Spanish explorer, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, is cast ashore on an island he named the Isle of Misfortune off the Gulf coast of Texas, which many historians believe was Galveston Island. He became the first European to explore America’s Gulf Coast states, and told the tale of his journeys in his account, ‘La Relación.’
1617 - Peace of Madrid, ending the war in Gradisca between the Republic of Venice and the Habsburg Empire is signed.
1676 - King Carlos II of Spain comes of age (at 15)
Chilpancingo Congres - https://www.historytoday.com/
1813 - The Chilpancingo Congress issues a declaration of Mexico’s independence from Spain.
1844 - Spain grants Dominican Republic independence
1936 - Spanish Civil War. The republican government flees from Madrid to Valencia, leading to the formation of the Madrid Defence Council in its stead 
1956 - Netherlands and Spain withdraw from Olympics in protest against Soviet actions in the Hungarian Revolution
1975 - 350,000 unarmed Moroccan civilians gathered in Tarfaya, southern Morocco, waiting for the order from King Hassan to start what is known as the ‘Marcha Verde – Green March’ – into Spanish Sahara, to force Spain to withdraw from the region.
1998 - the Spanish government agrees to Judge Baltasar Garzón’s request to apply to the UK for the extradition of General Augusto Pinochet.
2017 - Puigdemont and his fled councillors have placed themselves before Belgian Justice’ – Support in Barcelona among the independents for him to repeat his candidature next month, and the so-called united list is already facing complications. The constitutional blockage will avoid pre-election pacts for December 21


1479 - Juana la Loca, historically known as Joanna the Mad (Spanish: Juana la Loca), was the nominal Queen of Castile from 1504 and Queen of Aragon from 1516 to her death in 1555. She was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of Austria of the House of Habsburg, on 20 October 1496. Following the deaths of her brother, John, Prince of Asturias, in 1497, her elder sister Isabella in 1498, and her nephew Miguel in 1500, Joanna became the heir presumptive to the crowns of Castile and Aragon. When her mother, Queen Isabella I of Castile, died in 1504, Joanna became Queen of Castile. Her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, proclaimed himself Governor and Administrator of Castile.

In 1506 Archduke Philip became King of Castile jure uxoris as Philip I, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in the Spanish kingdoms, and died that same year. Despite being the ruling Queen of Castile, Joanna had little effect on national policy during her reign as she was declared insane and confined in the Royal Convent of Santa Clara in Tordesillas under the orders of her father, who ruled as regent until his death in 1516, when she inherited his kingdom as well. From 1516, when her son Charles I ruled as king, she was nominally co-monarch but remained confined until her death. Joanna's death resulted in the personal union of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, as her son Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, also became King of Castile and Aragon.

Joanna was born in the city of ToledoKingdom of Castile. She was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, both members of the House of Trastámara. She had a fair complexion, brown eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and her sister Catherine. Her siblings were Isabella, Queen of PortugalJohn, Prince of AsturiasMaria, Queen of Portugal; and Catherine, Queen of England.

She was educated and formally trained for a significant marriage that, as a royal family alliance, would extend the kingdom's power and security as well as its influence and peaceful relations with other ruling powers. As an infanta (princess), she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon, although through deaths she later inherited both.

Her academic education consisted of canon and civil law, genealogy and heraldry, grammar, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, reading, spelling and writing. Among the authors of classical literature, she read were the Christian poets Juvencus and Prudentius, Church fathers Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, Saint Gregory, and Saint Jerome, and the Roman statesman Seneca.

In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest, Andrés de Miranda; educator Beatriz Galindo, who was a member of the queen's court; and her mother, the queen. Joanna's royal education included court etiquette, dancing, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners, music, and the needle arts of embroidery, needlepoint, and sewing. She studied the Iberian Romance languages of Castilian, Leonese, Galician-Portuguese and Catalan, and became fluent in French and Latin. She learned outdoor pursuits such as hawking and hunting. She was skilled at dancing and music, having played the clavichord, the guitar, and the monochord.

By 1495, Joanna showed signs of religious scepticism and little devotion to worship and Catholic rites. This alarmed her mother Queen Isabella, who had established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478, and Joanna was especially afraid of her. Indeed, letters of Mosen Luis Ferrer, gentleman of the bed chamber of Ferdinand, refer to the coercive punishment known as "La cuerda" ("the rope") which Joanna was subjected to. This involved being suspended by a rope with weights attached to the feet, endangering life and limb. The Queen declared she would rather let the country be depopulated than have it polluted by heresy. Deviance by a child of the Catholic Monarchs would not be tolerated, much less heresy. Sub-Prior Friar Tomas de Matienzo and Friar Andreas complained of her refusal to confess – or to write to him or her mother – and accused her of corruption by Parisian 'drunkard' priests.

In 1496, Joanna, at the age of sixteen, was betrothed to the eighteen-year-old Philip of Flanders, in the Low Countries. Philip's parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. The marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power

Joanna entered a proxy marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid, Castile, where her parents had secretly married in 1469. In August 1496 Joanna left from the port of Laredo in northern Castile on the Atlantic's Bay of Biscay. Except for 1506, when she saw her younger sister Catherine, then Dowager Princess of Wales, she would not see her siblings again.

Joanna began her journey to Flanders in the Low Countries, which consisted of parts of the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, and Germany, on 22 August 1496. The formal marriage took place on 20 October 1496 in Lier, north of present-day Brussels. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children, two boys and four girls, all of whom grew up to be either emperors or queens.

The death of Joanna's brother John, the stillbirth of John's daughter, and the deaths of Joanna's older sister Isabelle and Isabella's son Miguel made Joanna heiress to the Spanish kingdoms. Her remaining siblings were Maria (1482–1517) and Catherine (1485–1536), younger than Joanna by three and six years, respectively.

In 1502, the Castilian Cortes of Toro recognised Joanna as heiress to the Castilian throne and Philip as her consort. She was named Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally given to the heir of Castile. Also in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Zaragoza to swear an oath to Joanna as heiress; however, the Archbishop of Zaragoza expressed firmly that this oath could only establish jurisprudence by way of a formal agreement on the succession between the Cortes and the king.

In 1502, Philip, Joanna and a large part of the Burgundian court travelled to Toledo for Joanna to receive fealty from the Cortes of Castile as Princess of Asturias, heiress to the Castilian throne, a journey chronicled in great detail by Antoni van Lalaing (French: Antoine de Lalaing). Philip and the majority of the court returned to the Low Countries in the following year, leaving a pregnant Joanna in Madrid, where she gave birth to her and Philip's fourth child, Ferdinand, later a central European monarch and Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand I.

Upon the death of her mother in November 1504, Joanna became Queen regnant of Castile and her husband jure uxoris its king in 1506. Joanna's father, Ferdinand II, lost his monarchical status in Castile although his wife's will permitted him to govern in Joanna's absence or, if Joanna was unwilling to rule herself, until Joanna's heir reached the age of 20.

Ferdinand refused to accept this; he minted Castilian coins in the name of "Ferdinand and Joanna, King and Queen of Castile, León and Aragon," and, in early 1505, persuaded the Cortes that Joanna's "illness is such that the said Queen Doña Joanna our Lady cannot govern". The Cortes then appointed Ferdinand as Joanna's guardian and the kingdom's administrator and governor.

Joanna's husband, Philip, was unwilling to accept any threat to his chances of ruling Castile and also minted coins in the name of "Philip and Joanna, King and Queen of Castile, Léon and Archdukes of Austria, etc. In response, Ferdinand embarked upon a pro-French policy, marrying Germaine de Foix, niece of Louis XII of France (and his own great-niece), in the hope that she would produce a son to inherit Aragon and perhaps Castile.

In the Low Countries, Joanna was kept in confinement. When her father-in-law Maximilian (in semi secrecy) visited them on 24 August 1505 though, she was released to welcome him. Maximilian tried to comfort Joanna with festivities and she spent weeks accompanying him in public events, during which she acted like a wise, prudent queen, as noted by the Venetian ambassador. To entertain Joanna, Philip and Maximilian (who was dressed incognito) jousted against each other at night, under torchlight. Maximilian told Philip that he could only succeed as a monarch if husband and wife were "una cosa medesima" (one and the same). After this, the couple reconciled somewhat. When Philip tried to gain support from Castilian nobles and prelates against Ferdinand though, Joanna firmly refused to act against her father.

Ferdinand's remarriage merely strengthened support for Philip and Joanna in Castile, and in late 1505, the pair decided to travel to Castile. Before they boarded the ship, Joanna forbade a ship with woman attendants to join the trip, fearing that Philip would have illicit relationships with them. This action played right into Philip's and Ferdinand's propaganda against her. Leaving Flanders on 10 January 1506, their ships were wrecked on the English coast and the couple were guests of Henry, Prince of Wales, later Henry VIII and Joanna's sister Catherine of Aragon at Windsor Castle. They weren't able to leave until 21 April, by which time civil war was looming in Castile.

Philip apparently considered landing in Andalusia and summoning the nobles to take up arms against Ferdinand in Aragon. Instead, he and Joanna landed at A Coruña on 26 April, whereupon the Castilian nobility abandoned Ferdinand en masse. Ferdinand met Philip at Villafáfila on 27 of June 1506 for a private interview in the village church. To the general surprise Ferdinand had unexpectedly handed over the government of Castile to his "most beloved children", promising to retire to Aragon. Philip and Ferdinand then signed a second treaty secretly, agreeing that Joanna's "infirmities and sufferings" made her incapable of ruling and promising to exclude her from government and deprive the Queen of crown and freedom.

Ferdinand promptly repudiated the second agreement the same afternoon, declaring that Joanna should never be deprived of her rights as Queen Proprietors of Castile. A fortnight later, having come to no fresh agreement with Philip, and thus effectively retaining his right to interfere if he considered his daughter's rights to have been infringed upon, he abandoned Castile for Aragon, leaving Philip to govern in Joanna's stead. (d. 1555).

1661 - Carlos II of Spain, the last of the Hapsburg King of Spain (1665-1700) born in Real Alcazar of Madrid (b.1700).
1711 - Andrés Piquer, doctor and philosopher (b. 1772)
1720 - D.Pedro Fitz James Stuart y Colon de Portugal, who will be the III Capitán General de la Armada Española was born in Madrid.
1832 - Severo Catalina del Amo, politician and writer (b. 1871)
1891 - José Miguel de la Quadra-Salcedo, architect (b. 1952)
1907 - Rafael Zabaleta, painter (b. 1960)
1919 - Jaume Elías, footballer (b. 1977)
1936 - Rafael Manzano, architect.
1958 - Pedro Muñoz Machín, cyclist.
1964 - Félix Sarriugarte, football player and trainer.
1997 - Aliona Bolsova. Spanish-Moldovan tennis player 
2006 - Paquito (Francisco) Fernández Ochoa, the alpine skier who won the gold in slalom in the Sapporo Winter Olympics in 1972.

1597 - Infanta Catherine Michelle (Catalina Micaela of Austria) Duchess consort ot Savoy (1585-97) (b. 1537)
1888 - Francisco Maria Tubino and Rada, journalist, politician and Spanish archaeologist.
1890 - Antonio Cortina Farinós, Valencian painter, he died in Madrid
1920 - Arturo Soria, property developer and engineer.
1984 - José Antonio Coderch, architect (b. 1913)
2006 - Paquito Fernández Ochoa, first Spanish Olympic gold medal skier (Sapporo 72).
2006 - Mara Goyanes, actress.