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October 28

Saint’s Day for Cirilo, Honorato, Fidel, Simón and Judas Tadeo.

1092 - Al-Qadir of Valencia is assassinated by a revolt led by the Qadi Ibn Yahhaf.
1492 - Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba on his first voyage to the New World and claims it for Spain under the name 'Juana'.
1492 - The Spaniard Rodrigo de Jerez is the first Westerner to see the Indians smoking snuff and the first to imitate them.
1848 - the first railway line in Spain, Barcelona-Mataró, is officially inaugurated.

Photo www.rtve.es

1900 - In Barcelona, the Real Club Deportivo Español is founded.
1930 - Picasso wins the first Carnegie international prize for painting .
1938 - The International Brigades leave Spain.
1944 - in La Coruña, España, is opened Municipal Stadium de Riazor.
1956 - Televisión Española broadcasts for the first time, from the Paseo de la Habana, in Madrid. There were just 600 television sets in the country at the time.
1982 - The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party wins elections, leading to the first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe González becomes Prime Minister and lasted fourteen years
1992 - Spain was elected to a two-year term on the United Nations Security Council.
2017 - Spain's central government imposes direct rule on Cataluña, dismisses its government and calls for new elections in December
2022 - Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez has called on global leaders to prioritize solutions to the climate change crisis threatening food security in African countries and the effects on the continent of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

During an official visit to South Africa, Sanchez met with South African President Cyril Ramaphosa a day after meeting with recently elected Kenyan President William Ruto in Nairobi.

1510 - Francis Borgia, venerated as Saint Francis Borgia, was a Jesuit priest. The great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI, he was a grandee of Spain and served as the third superior general of the Society of Jesus. He was canonized on 20 June 1670 by Pope Clement X.

He was born in the Duchy of Gandía in the Kingdom of Valencia (part of Aragon), on 28 October 1510. His father was Juan Borgia, 3rd Duke of Gandía, the son of Giovanni Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). His mother was Juana, daughter of Alonso de Aragón, Archbishop of Zaragoza, who, in turn, was the illegitimate son of King Ferdinand II of Aragon. His brother, Tomás de Borja y Castro, also entered the Church, becoming Bishop of Málaga, and later Archbishop of Zaragoza.

As a child he was very pious and wished to become a monk, but his family sent him instead to serve in the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (who was also King Carlos I of Spain), where he was welcomed as a kinsman. He excelled there, accompanying the Emperor on several campaigns.

In Madrid in the month of September 1529, he married a Portuguese noblewoman, Leonor de Castro Mello y Meneses. They had eight children: Carlos in 1530, Isabel in 1532, Juan in 1533, Álvaro circa 1535, Juana also circa 1535, Fernando in 1537, Dorotea in 1538, and Alfonso in 1539. Charles V appointed him Marquess of Lombay, master of the hounds, and equerry to the empress.

In 1539, he convoyed the corpse of Isabella of Portugal, Philip II of Spain's mother, to her burial place in Granada. In that same year (1539), he became Viceroy of Catalonia, replacing Fadrique de Portugal y Noroña, though he was only 29.

In these earlier years of his life, he enjoyed composing musical ecclesiastical pieces. In these pieces he displayed a remarkable contrapuntal style, justifying the assertion that, "In the sixteenth century and prior to Palestrina, Borgia was one of the chief restorers of sacred music."

In 1543 upon the death of his father, the 3rd Duke, Francis became the 4th Duke of Gandía. His diplomatic abilities came into question after his failed attempt at arranging a marriage between Prince Philip of Spain and the Princess of Portugal, thus ending a hope of bringing these two countries together, and resulting in his retirement as duke, handing his title to his son, Carlos. By then 33 years old, he had retired to his native place and devoted himself to religious activities.

In 1546 his wife Eleanor died, and Francis then decided to enter the newly formed Society of Jesus, after making adequate provisions for his children. He put his affairs in order circa 1551, renounced his titles in favour of his eldest son Carlos de Borja-Aragon y de Castro-Melo, and became a Jesuit priest. He helped in the establishment of what is now the Gregorian University in Rome. Upon Francis’ return from a journey to Peru, Pope Julius III made known his intention to make him a cardinal. To prevent this, Borgia decided, in agreement with St. Ignatius, to leave the city secretly and go to the Basque Country, where it was thought he would be safe from the papal desires. He felt incompletion to spend time in seclusion and prayer, but his administrative talents also made him a natural for other tasks. In time his friends persuaded him to accept the leadership role that nature and circumstances had destined him for: in 1554, he became the Jesuit commissary-general in Spain, where he founded a dozen colleges. After only two years, St. Francis was crowned for missions in the East and West Indies. In 1565, he was elected the third "Father General" or Superior General of the Society of Jesus, after the death in January 1565 of Diego Laynez, (Almazán, Spain, 1512 – January 1565).

His successes during the period 1565–1572 made historians to describe Francis as the greatest General after Saint Ignatius. He founded the Collegium Romanum, which was to become the Gregorian University, advised kings and popes, and closely supervised all the affairs of the mushrooming order. Yet, despite being the supreme, Francis led a humble life and was acclaimed in his own lifetime as a saint.

Francis Borgia died on 30 September 1572, in Rome. His mortal remains were repatriated to Spain in 1617 and kept from 1627 at the Jesuit professed house in Madrid that was newly built for that purpose north of Plaza Mayor on a donation from Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, 1st Duke of Lerma. On 30 July 1901, the silver urn contained the relics was transferred to the church of the Sacred Church and San Francis Borgia on Calle de la Flor Baja, part of a new Jesuit residence (later professed house from 1911) established thanks to a donation from Manuel Álvarez de Toledo. After that church was destroyed by arson in 1931, some of his ashes were recovered and eventually reinterred in the new Jesuit complex on Calle de Serrano.

Francis Borgia was beatified in Madrid on 23 November 1624, by Pope Urban VIII. He was canonized nearly 35 years later on 20 June 1670, by Pope Clement X. His liturgical feast was inserted into the General Roman Calendar in 1688 for celebration on 10 October,] the date then free from other celebrations that was closest to that of his death.

Parishes are dedicated to St. Francis Borgia in Chicago, Illinois, Sturgis, Kentucky, Washington, Missouri, Blair, Nebraska, and Cedarburg, Wisconsin. Also, in the village of Isio in the town of Cauayan, Negros Occidental, Philippines. The Jesuit-founded city of São Borja, in southern Brazil, is named after him.

Saint Francis Borgia Regional High School is located in Washington, Missouri.(d. 1572)

1667 - Maria Anna (Mariana) of Neuburg, second wife of Carlos II of Spain, born in Benrath Palace, Düsseldorf, Electoral Palatinate (d. 1740)
1775 - José de Palafox, military man who participated as captain during the siege of Zaragoza in the War of Independence.
1803 - José María Orense Mila Aragon Herrero, politician and Spanish journalist.
1866 - Ramon Valle and Pena, also known as Ramon del Valle-Inclan, playwright, poet and novelist modernism next generation of 98, considered one of the key authors of the twentieth century literature.
1878 - Conrado del Campo, composer.
1878 - Ambrosio Ristori, soldier (d. 1966)
1889 - Francisco Martínez García, politician (d. 1936)
1890 - Joaquin Garcia-Hidalgo, journalist and politician (d. 1936)
1890 - Andrés Isasi. Basque composer, born in Bilbao (d. 1940)
1906 - Xosé Filgueira, intelectual (d. 1996)
1924 - Antonio Creus, race car driver born in Madrid (d. 1996)
1928 - Cassen, comic.
1934 - Julio Jiménez, road cyclist (King of the Mountains; Tour de France 1965, 66, 67 and Vuelta de España 1963, 64, 65. born in Ávila (d. 2022)
1943 - Charo López, actress (La Regenta) born in Salamanca
1957 - Paco Ortega, musician and composer.
1958 - Concha García Campoy, journalist (d. 2013)
1974 - Vicente Moreno, footballer and manager
1978 - Marta Etura, actress
1991 - Enrique Troyano, cyclist

1661 - Agustín Moreto y Cavana, priest and playwright (b. 1618)
1748 - Juan Alcober Figuera, religious man. (b. 1694)
1918 - Inocencio Medina Vera illustrator. (b.1876)
1997 - Miguel Mihura, writer, illustrator and humorist. (b .1905)
1999 - The Spanish poet, Rafael Alberti, died at the age of 96. The poet only returned to Spain in 1977, after spending 39 years in exile. (b. 1902)
2005 - Alberto Ormaetxea, footballer. (b. 1839)
2007 - Eduardo Primo Yúfera, chemist (b. 1918)
2011 - Juan María Bandrés, polítician and lawyer (b. 1932)