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September 16

Saints Days: Cornelio, Eufemia, Antequera, Cipriano and Rogelio

1410 - The Christians conquer Antequera in Málaga which was under Muslim power
1492 - In the Atlantic Ocean, the three ships of Columbus arrive in a large covered area of algae that later would be known as the Sargasso Sea.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla - https://en.wikipedia.org/
1810 -  With the Grito de Dolores, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla begins Mexico's fight for independence from Spain. A professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid, Hidalgo was influenced by Enlightenment ideas, which contributed to his ouster in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores. After his arrival, he was shocked by the rich soil he had found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in New Spain (modern Mexico) growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by colonial authorities to prevent competition with imports from Spain. This day he gave the Grito de Dolores, a speech calling on the people to protect the interest of their King Ferdinand VII, held captive during the Peninsular War, by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy José de Iturrigaray  
He marched across Mexico and gathered an army of nearly 90,000 poor farmers and Mexican civilians who attacked Spanish Peninsular and Criollo elites. Hidalgo's troops lacked training and were poorly armed: These troops ran into an army of well-trained and armed Spanish troops in the Battle of Calderón Bridge and were defeated. After the battle, Hidalgo and his remaining troops fled north, but Hidalgo was betrayed, captured and executed 

1998 - The Valencia Language Academy is created
2007 - Spanish volleyball team win the gold medal in the European Championships in Russia
2009 - Argentina formally accepts apologies from the Spanish government which admitted having committed a “protocol error” on allowing the presence of a delegation from the Falkland Islands in an international fisheries sustainability conference
2017 - Rajoy: ‘They are not going to take us where we don’t want to go’ – the Government has halted all the payments for basic services for the Generalitat. Puigdemont and Colau have written to the King and Rajoy to negotiate the referendum. The banks have to reveal to the prosecutor any movements linked to funding the consultation.
2022 - San Sebastián film festival opened in its 70th anniversary, despite the last-minute cancellation by Glenn Close as jury president. The festival will pay homage to the career of French actress Juliette Binoche and Canadian director David Cronenberg, both of whom will receive an honorary Donostia Award 

1584 - Francisco Correa de Arauxo, composer and organist.
1829 - Manuel Tamayo y Baus, writer (d. 1898)
1946 - Camilo Sesto - singer-songwriter and producer (d. 2019)
1847 - Baltasar Martinez Duran, lyric poet.
1851 - Emilia Pardo Bazán, Countess and writer (Pascual López :Autobiography on a Medical Student) novelist, journalist, essayist and literary critic Spanish introducer of naturalism in Spain. born in La Coruña (d. 1921)
1877 - Julián Juderías, historian and journalist (d. 1918)
1899 - Leopoldo Querol, pianist (d. 1985)
1921 - Jorge, cartoonist (d. 1960)
1925 - Odón Betanzos, journalist.
1943 - Andres Vicente Gomez, producer of Spanish cinema.
1946 - Camilo Sesto, singer-songwriter and producer born in Alcoy
1950 - Loyola de Palacio, politician.
1957 - Assumpta Serna, actress.
1963 - Rafael Reig, writer.
1964 - Rosa Elena García Echave known professionally as Rossy de Palma, actress and model. She is well known for her roles in films by Pedro Almodóvar such as Law of Desire, Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, Kika, The Flower of My Secret and Parallel Mothers
Born in Palma, she was originally a singer and dancer for the band Peor Imposible. She was discovered by filmmaker Pedro Alomdóvar at a café in Madrid in 1986. Her first major role was in 1988 in Almodóvar's Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, and she would go on to be one of Almodóvar's recurring cast. She became a model for designers Jean-Paul Gautier, Thierry Mugler and Sybilla, She then appeared in Robert Altman's 1984 satirical fashion film Prét-à-Porter and in the music video of George Michael's 'Too Funky' song
She currently lives in France where she acts and does modeling. As of 2010. she is a theatre actress, charity spokesperson for the Ghanaian charity OrphanAid Africa and the face of luxury ad campaigns
In 2009, she posed nude in an information magazine Marie Claire 
1968 - Rafael Alkorta, footballer.
1973 - Luis Larrodera, journalist.
1975 - Samanta Villar, journalist.
1976 - Leire Pajín, politician.
1981 - Daniel Martín Alexandre, footballer.
1998 - Nil Cardoner, actor (Pulseras rojas).

1343 - Philip III of Navarre (b 1306)
1498 - Tomás de Torquemada, was a Castilian Dominican friar and the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain's movement to homogenise religious practices with those of the Catholic Church in the late 15th century, otherwise known as the Spanish Inquisition
Mainly because of persecution Muslims and Jews in Spain at that time found it socially, politically and economically expedient to convert to Catholicism. The existence of superficial converts from Judaism was perceived by the Spanish monarchs of that time (King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella) as a threat to the religious and social life of Spain. This led Torquemada, whose uncle had converso ancestors, to be one of the chief supporters of the Alhambra Decree that expelled the Jews from Spain in 1492
Owing to his widespread use of torture to extract confessions, and advocacy of burning at the stake those deemed guilty, Torquemada's name has become synonymous with cruelty, religious intolerance and fanaticism  (b. 1420)
1574 - Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, conqueror of Florida.
1702 - Cipriano Barace, Jesuit missionary.
1936 - Cristóbal Colón y Aguilera, noble (b. 1878)
1948 - Manuel Arce y Ochotorena, cardinal (b. 1879)
1965 - Alejandro Casona, playwright.
2004 - Ramón Gabilondo, footballer. (b. 1913)
2006 - Xavier Valls, painter (b. 1923)
2011 - Jordi Dauder, actor (b. 1938).