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September 27

Saint’s Day for Adolfo, Florentino, Marcos and Vicente de Paúl.

1333 - In Castilla, King Alfonso XI returned to the city of Burgos the town of Muñó and its extensive countryside known as Can de Muñó.
1841 - Pamplona, General Leopoldo O'Donnell leads a movement against Baldomero Espartero, which aims to put back on the throne Maria Cristina de Borbon.
1936 - In the Alcazar of Toledo, troops of the 5th flag of the Spanish Legion, commanded by General José Varela, raise siege of the Alcazar.

1955 - Spain is admitted into the United Nations.
1975 - Government De Uyl recalls Dutch ambassador from Spain
1975 - The last executions of the Franco regime took place, when five men were shot by firing squad on 27th September, sparking worldwide protests against the Spanish government and the withdrawal of numerous ambassadors. While no more executions took place after that date, the death penalty for murder was not abolished in Spain until December 1978, and for all crimes, in November 1995.
1984 - The Anti-Terrorism Law was approved by Congress, and on 27th September 2000, the families of 254 victims of terrorism were awarded on behalf of their relatives with the Civil Order for the Victims of Terrorism, under a new law passed the previous year.
1988 - In the province of Málaga, Torremolinos separates from Málaga and becomes a single municipality.
2000 - In the Congress of Deputies in Madrid, 254 relatives of victims of terrorism receive a civil recognition.
2010 - 95 people, including two former mayors and planning chief of Marbella, appear in court in Málaga in one of Spain's biggest corruption trials
2014 - Artur Mas i Gavarró, the President of the Spanish region of Cataluña, authorises a referendum on independence on November 9 despite the opposition of the Government of Spain.

1761 - Cosme Damián de Churruca y Elorza was a Basque Spanish noble, admiral of the Royal Spanish Armada, naval scientist and Mayor of Motrico. During the Battle of Trafalgar, he was the commander of the ship of the line San Juan Nepomuceno which he defended to his death.

Churruca was born in Mutriku, he was the fourth son of Francisco de Churruca, mayor of the town. He received his early years education in the Seminary of Burgos, initially thinking of becoming a priest. Then, he entered the School of Bergara where he would become member of Royal Basque Society of Friends of the Country until his death. After finishing his studies, inspired by the adventures of his relative José Antonio de Gaztañeta, he joined the Naval Academy of Cadiz in 1776, and got his degree in the Naval Academy of Ferrol in 1778, becoming a naval officer.

In 1781, Churruca, as an officer of the Spanish Navy, performed heroically in a siege of Gibraltar under the command of Ignacio María de Álava, earning a distinguished reputation for his services. In 1805, just a few months before his death, Churruca married María Dolores Ruiz de Apodaca, niece of Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, naval officer and viceroy of New Spain.

The squadron to which the San Juan was assigned sailed on 13 August from the port of Ferrol. General Gravina had given Churruca a place of honour, the head of the vanguard. Churruca completed his mission with the highest merit and upon his arrival to Cadiz, redoubled his efforts in training his recently recruited and inexperienced civilian crew. It was at this time he married Maria de los Dolores Ruiz de Apodaca, daughter of Brigadier don Vicente, and cousin of the duke of Venadito.

With the Spanish and French squadrons reunited in the port of Cádiz, they sailed on a course to Marticina, where they took the fort of Del Diamante and captured a British convoy consisting of 16 merchant ships; in these moments Villeneuve, the chief of the combined fleet, was informed of the presence of Nelson in the Antilles. Villeneuve now decided he had completed his objective, which was to draw British naval forces to the other shore of the Atlantic, so he decided to sail the combined fleet back to Ferrol. However, in the cape of Finisterre, he bumped into the squadron of Admiral Calder, where a battle ensued. The majority of the French squadron continued to Ferrol, while the remaining ships were left to fend for themselves. Their defeat is attributed to the indecision and poor command of the chief of the combined squadron, Villeneuve, by Napoleon, who upon reading reports of the battle said: "The Spanish have behaved like lions, while their admiral only offered curses."

The combined fleet entered Ferrol after the battle, proceeding in continuation to La Coruña. From this port, Villeneuve set a course to Cadiz, ignoring Napoleon's order to go to Brest. Once there, despite the protests and opposing opinions of Churruca, Gravina and Alcalá-Galiano, Villeneuve abandoned the Bay of Cádiz to reach Nelson at the Cape of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. Before sailing on 20 October, Churruca wrote to his brother:

On the San Juan in Cádiz on 11 October. Dear brother: since we left Ferrol nobody has received their pay, despite these being declared in advance and classified as soldiers’ purest. To this end they are owed four months, and they hold no hope of seeing one real in a long time; they owe us four months of salary as well, but we won’t receive a morsel, despite the hard work we are doing: Because of this I cannot thank you enough for freeing Dolores from the hardships she would suffer to pay you 1.356 reales, which I will reimburse you as soon as I can. In the meantime, I have found in Ferrol a rich friend who will help Dolores as she needs, and I remain calm in having decently assured her sustenance. This is the work with which we serve the King, that in no grade can we rely on our wages (…) If you come to hear that my ship has been taken, know that I am dead.

21 October dawned, and in sight of the British fleet Churruca ordered the colours to be nailed to the mast, and ordered that they should not be taken down while he still lived. Under the command of Churruca, the San Juan Nepomuceno demonstrated military precision, daring and efficiency, despite finding itself alone against six English ships, including HMS Defiance, HMS Tonnant, HMS Bellerophon and HMS Dreadnought. After being reached by a cannonball which tore his leg, Churruca died with the admiration of his enemies, who displayed his vessel in Gibraltar to visitors with his name written in golden letters above the cabin, and advising those who would enter to remove their covers, as if don Cosme Damián de Churruca y Elorza was still present. His officers kept their word, and only lowered the colours after his death. Unable to break the circle of fire and in order to prevent the vessel sinking with all wounded trapped below, the San Juan yielded with over 100 dead and 150 wounded on board. (d. 1805)

1777 - Simon de Rojas, botanist (d. 1827)
1875 - Adolfo Bonilla, philosopher (d. 1926)
1900 - Adolfo Aznar, filmmaker. (d. 1975)
1929 - Txillardegi, abertzale vasco politician (d. 2012)
1936 - Sancho Gracia, actor (d. 2012)
1937 - Jose Sacristan, actor.
1948 - Juan Cruz Ruiz, writer and journalist, assistant to the direction of the newspaper El Pais.
1951 - Jaime Lissavetzky, politician.
1958 - Carmen Cerdeira, politician.
1972 - Ángel Casero, cyclist.
1974 - Pedro Horrillo, cyclist.
1988 - Nico Terol, motorbike rider.
2011 -  Giorgi Bagrationi, Spanish-Georgian son of David Bagration of Mukhrani

1760 - Maria Amalia of Saxony Queen consort of Spain (b.1759)
1803 - Salvador Fidalgo, marine of the XVIII century (b. 1756)
1907 - Fermín Salvochea, anarchist (b. 1842)
1940 - the Socialist politician, Julián Besteiro, died in Carmona. He succeeded Pablo Iglesias, the party’s founder, as President of the PSOE Party in 1925, and was President of Congress during the Second Republic. (b, 1870)
1947 - Jose Fernandez Nonidez, geneticist (b. 1891)
1952 - Rafael Benjumea and Burín, politician and engineer (b. 1876)
2000 - Carlos Revilla, dubbing actor. (b. 1933)
2008 - Mario Maya, dancer and choreographer (b. 1937)
2011 - Jesús Pereda, football player and trainer (b. 1938)