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September 28

Saint’s Day for Wenceslao, Marcial, Lorenzo, and Silvino.

1238 - King James 1 of Aragón conques Valencia from the Moors. Shortly thereafter, he proclaims himself King of Valencia
1542 - Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, discovers California, at San Diego Bay, naming it San Miguel and claims it for Spain
1821 - The Act of Independence of the Mexican Empire was signed in Mexico, formally establishing it as a sovereign nation independent from Spain.

Photo - https://es.wikipedia.org/

1821 - Honduras proclaims its independence from Spain.
1868 - Battle of Alcolea causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France.
1907 - In Cantabria the Royal Gymnastic Society of Torrelavega is founded, dean of the Cantabrian football.
1937 - within the framework of the Spanish Civil War, Franco created the National Day of the Caudillo, who was to commemorate the October 1 of each year, when it took power.
1997 - Ryder Cup Golf, Valderrama GC; Spain, Europe  wins 14 1/2 - 13 1/2 to retain the Cup, first time event contested in continental Europe; first of 6 consecutive victories at home by Europe
2007 - Lehendakari Juan José Ibarretxe announces a referendum on the future of the Basque Country for 25 October 2008
2008 - Fernando Alonso wins the Singapore Grand Prix in Formula One's first night race
2009 - Spain's Pablo Pineda wins the best actor award at the San Sebastián International Film Festival, the first actor with Down's syndrome to win an international film award.

1614 - Juan Hidalgo, composer (d. 1685)
1767 - Cayetano Valdés, Marine (d. 6 of February in 1835 in Sevilla)
1819 - Monturiol i Estarriol was born in the city of Figueres. He was the son of a cooper. Monturiol went to high school in Cervera and got a law degree in Mostoles in 1845. He solved the fundamental problems of underwater navigation. In effect, Monturiol invented the first fully functional engine-driven submarine.

Monturiol never practiced law, instead turning his talents to writing and publishing, setting up a publishing company in 1846, the same year he married his wife, Emilia. He produced a series of journals and pamphlets espousing his radical beliefs in feminism, pacifism, and utopian communism. He also founded the newspaper "La Madre de Familia", in which he promised "to defend women from the tyranny of men" and "La Fraternidad", Spain's first communist newspaper.

Monturiol's friendship with Abdó Terrades led him to join the Republican Party and his circle of friends included such names as musician Josep Anselm Clavé, and engineer and reformist Ildefons Cerdà. Monturiol also became an enthusiastic follower of the utopian thinker and socialist Étienne Cabet; he popularised Cabet's ideas through La Fraternidad and produced a Spanish translation of his novel Voyage en Icarie. A circle formed round La Fraternidad raised enough money for one of them to travel to Cabet's utopian community, Icaria.

Following the revolutions of 1848, one of his publications was suppressed by the government and he was forced into a brief exile in France. When he returned to Barcelona in 1849, the government curtailed his publishing activities, and he turned his attention to science and engineering instead.

A stay in Cadaqués allowed him to observe the dangerous job of coral harvesters where he even witnessed the death of a man who drowned while performing this job. This prompted him to think of submarine navigation and in September 1857 he went back to Barcelona and organized the first commercial society in Catalonia and Spain dedicated to the exploration of submarine navigation with the name of Monturiol, Font, Altadill y Cia. and a capital of 10,000 pesetas.

In 1858 Monturiol presented his project in a scientific thesis, titled The Ictineo or fish-ship. The first dive of his first submarine, Ictineo I, took place in September 1859 in the harbour of Barcelona.

Ictineo I was 7 m long with a beam of 2.5 m and draft of 3.5 m Her intended use was to ease the harvest of coral. Ictineo's prow was equipped with a set of tools suited to the harvest of coral. During the summer of 1859, Monturiol performed more than 20 dives in Ictineo, with his business partner and shipbuilder as crew. Ictineo, I possessed good handling, but her top speed was disappointing, as it was limited by the power of human muscles.

The technical success of this submersible created popular enthusiasm but no support from the government. As a result, Monturiol wrote a "letter to the nation", asking the people of Spain to support his project. The fund raising was a great success, bringing in 300,000 pesetas from the people of Spain and Cuba.

Ictineo I was eventually destroyed by accident in January 1862, after completing some fifty dives, when a cargo vessel ran into her at her berth. With the money obtained from the subscription, the company La Navegación Submarina was formed with the objective of developing Ictineo II.

A modern replica of Ictineo I stands in the garden entrance to the Marine Museum in Barcelona.

An improved version of Ictineo IIctineo II was launched on 2 October 1864. Ictineo II made her maiden voyage under human power on 20 May 1865, submerging to a depth of 30 metres. Dissatisfied with the limitations of human propulsion, Monturiol, after much experimentation, invented a chemical combination that generated both heat and oxygen when mixed. With the heat generated by this mixture he hoped to drive a small steam engine, which could also be powered with coal during surface operation.

Monturiol's ultimate plan envisaged a vessel custom-built to house his new engine, which would be entirely built of metal and with the engine housed in its own separate compartment. Due to the state of his finances, construction of the metal vessel was out of the question. Instead, he managed to assemble enough funds to fit the engine into the wooden Ictineo II for preliminary tests and demonstrations.

On 22 October 1867, Ictineo II made her first surface journey under steam power, averaging 6.5 km/h with a top speed of 8.3 km/h. On 14 December, Monturiol submerged the vessel and successfully tested his anaerobic engine, without attempting to travel anywhere.

On 23 December that same year, Monturiol's company went bankrupt and could attract no more investment. The chief creditor called in his debt, and Monturiol was forced to surrender his sole asset, Ictineo II. The creditor subsequently sold her to a businessman, and the authorities, who taxed all ships, issued its new owner with a tax bill. Rather than pay the bill, he dismantled the submarine and sold it for scrap. A replica can be seen at the harbour of Barcelona.

In 1868 Monturiol returned to political life. A member of the Partido Federal, he was a deputy in the Constituent Assembly of the First Spanish Republic (1873), and shortly afterwards became the director of Fabrica Nacional del Timbre (National Stamp Factory) in Madrid for a few months, where he implemented a process to speed up the manufacturing of adhesive paper. Monturiol's other inventions included a system for copying letters, a continuous printer, a rapid-firing cannon, a system to enhance the performance of steam generators, a stone cutter, a method for preserving meat, and a machine for making cigarettes. (d. 1885)

1882 - Eugenio d'Ors y Rovira, writer, journalist and philosopher, born in Barcelona (d. 1954)
1901 - Francisco Ruiz-Jarabo, judge and politician (d. 1990)
1906 - Mari Carmen Prendes, actress.
1933 - Miguel Ortiz Berrocal, was a figurative and abstract sculptor. He is best known for his puzzle sculptures, which can be disassembled into many abstract pieces. These works are also known for the miniature artworks and jewelry incorporated into or concealed within them, and the fact that some of the sculptures can be reassembled or reconfigured into different arrangements. Berrocal's  sculptures span a wide range of physical sizes from monumental outdoor public works, to intricate puzzle sculptures small enough to be worn as pendants, bracelets, or other body ornamentation
From 1967 to 2004 Berrocal worked in Verona Italy and in nearby Negrar where he worked closely with sculptural foundries to produce his art. His work was exhibited widely throughout Europe and also in North and South America and Japan. in 2004 he returned to his birthplace in Spain, remaining artistically active until his sudden death in 2006
The Fundación Escultor Berrocal continues to preserve and promote his artwork and legacy from its headquarters in his hometown of Villanueva de Algaidas   
1937 - Paz Fernandez Felgueroso, Asturian politician.
1941 - Manu Leguineche, Journalist and writer.
1941 - Peridis, journalist.
1955 - Xavier Estivill, scientist.
1964 - Sergio Dalma, singer.
1973 - Victor Clavijo, actor.
1978 - Pastora Soler, singer.
1981 - José Calderón, basketball player, guard, (captain Spain gold FIBA World C'ship 2006,Olympic silver 08, 12, NBA; Toronto, Detroit, Dallas, NY Knicks; Cleveland) born in Villanueva de la Serena

1104 - Pedro I, King of Aragon and Navarra (b. 1068)
1903 - Jesús de Monasterio, violinist and composer (b. 1836)
2015 - Ignacio Zoco, footballer (b. 1939)